Jewellery Knowledge

Knowledge is Power.Knowledge ensures growth for not only your business, but personally as well.VR3D jewellery provide you with all the tools needed to make you the gain your customers confidence.

About Metal

Six Categories as follows :

For centuries, Gold been cherished for being strong .Gold is also malleable enough to suit endless designs, so it’s an excellent foundation for all types of jewelry. Because it’s resistant to corrosion, tarnish and rust, gold jewelry will look new for a long time. While the rich color of pure gold is beautiful, it is too soft to have the strength and durability needed for jewelry. To give it the strength needed, it must be alloyed with other metals such as copper, silver, zinc or nickel. The percentage of pure gold to alloys is expressed in karatage.

Definition of Karatage in gold content for recognized International Standards:
Carats/Karats Fineness, % old content, % Comments
24 999 99.9 -
24 990 99.0 Minimum allowed
22 916 91.6 Indian subcontinent
21 875 87.5 Arabic countries
(19.2) 800 80.0 Standard in Portugal
18 750 75.0 Standard karatage
14 585 58.5 583 / 58.3% in USA
10 417 41.7 Minimum in USA
9 375 37.5 U.K. standard
8 333 33.3 Minimum Germany

The shade of yellow gold can vary based on the alloy. As the amount of gold increases, so does the brightness of the yellow color. When yellow gold is mixed with nickel and zinc, it becomes white gold, which looks similar to platinum. White gold is often finished by plating it with rhodium, which will give it an even whiter, more brilliant appearance. Mixing more copper into the gold creates rose gold, which has a soft blush hue.

Type Gold % wt Silver % Copper % Colour
22 ct 91.6 8.4 - yellow
91.6 5.5 2.8 yellow
91.6 5.5 5.1 Deep yellow
91.6 - 8.4 Pink/rose
18 ct 75.0 25.0 - Green-yellow
75.0 16.0 9.0 Pale yellow, 2N
75.0 12.5 12.5 Yellow, 3N
75.0 9.0 16.0 Pink, 4N
14 ct 58.5 4.5 20.5 Red, 5N
58.5 41.5 - Pale green
58.5 30.0 11.5 Yellow
9 ct 37.5 9.0 32.5 Red
37.5 37.5 62.5 White
37.5 55.0 7.5 Pale Yellow
37.5 42.5 20.0 Yellow
37.5 31.25 31.25 Rich Yellow
37.5 20.0 42.5 Pink
37.5 7.5 55.0 Red

The setting of the Hope Diamond is platinum — not to mention the casket of your typical High Egyptian Priestess! The durability and heaviness of platinum has been treasured for millennia. But with those properties comes a high price. Platinum is a dense metal, the density of platinum makes it more durable than other jewellery metals. It is naturally hypoallergenic and ideal for those with sensitive skin. Platinum’s unequalled durability and resistance to wear makes it the most secure and protective metal. Found in very few places around the world, platinum is 30 times more rare than gold.

Sterling Silver

Silversmithing is an ancient art that, like crafting gold, dates back to the Egyptian empires. Throughout history, silver has been valued for its luster and utility, and was particularly prized by native people in Mexico, Peru, and the American West. Though less popular in the early 1900s, when it was used more for tea sets and utensils than for jewelry, silver jewellery is extremely popular today with both men and women. The sheer affordability and malleability of silver opens up tremendous possibilities for jewelry designers.

Like gold, silver is so soft it often needs to be alloyed, usually with copper. Sterling silver 92.5% pure and 7.5% copper. The copper alloy does little to diminish the value of your silver. The value of sterling silver jewelry is actually determined by the amount of labor and quality of workmanship that goes into the creation of a piece.

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel jewelry is slightly similar in appearance to silver. It is harder than silver and will not tarnish which is why it is increasingly used in jewelry. White gold and sterling silver pieces often contain a metal called ‘nickel’ which can cause allergic reactions in some people. Stainless jewelry can be (but is not always) made without nickel making it suitable for those allergic to nickel. Depending upon the shape and type of jewelry stainless steel may be more difficult and hence more expensive than a corresponding piece of silver jewelry. Stainless jewelry does not have the same luster or shine as other metals but some prefer its slightly more metallic appearance and it is particularly popular amongst men. Stainless steel jewelry is more jewelry than gold and silver pieces and will not tarnish or rust as easily.

Tungsten Carbide

Tungsten carbide is created when tungsten and carbide powders are combined and heated at 2,400 degrees Fahrenheit. The result is a metal that is virtually indestructible, and that will retain its original finish for a lifetime. This jewelry is nearly impossible to scratch and a high polish finish can only be created using a diamond compound. Tungsten carbide is a heavy metal, which gives it a very luxurious feel when you wear it. Tungsten carbide has the most tensile strength of any metal. It stays solid, stays shiny, and stays ‘clean’ — boasting natural hypoallergenic qualities that make it a good choice to wear next to the skin.


Easily the strongest of all metals used in jewelry. Titanium is available in a number of colors dependent upon the anodizing process used to create the piece. Titanium is very low maintenance and robust and will outlast all other types of jewelry. Titanium is also extremely light. These reasons combine to make it very popular among new types of jewelry. Unfortunately it is still quite expensive due mostly to the processes required to produce titanium jewelry.

About Diamond


Do not confuse with Round. The Round Brilliant is the modern version of the Round which has been refined for maximum shine. The Round Brilliant is by far the most popular and has the best angles to shine maximum brilliance.


A square cut similar to an emerald with step facets; however, it is more square rather then rectangular shaped. Like the emerald, it has clipped corners. Recently the Asscher shape has become very popular.


A more traditional shape, the Emerald is not as popular as it once was, but still retains its old world elegance..


Popular before the Princess shape was around, the Radiant has more facets than a Princess, but has the corners trimmed like the Emerald shape. This shape is not widely popular.


Hard to find due to low demand, but some people prefer a Heart shape diamond for sentimental purposes.


Like the Emerald, the Marquise is a traditional shape. This is probably the fourth most popular shape behind the Round, Princess and Oval..


Mostly used in pendants, the Pear shape diamond is shaped in a tear drop shape and has fairly good proportions to refract light well.


Everyone has their own opinion on what Ideal is. Some people prefer a diamond to have a somewhat larger table, say around 60%, so the diamond “looks” bigger. Some want the Tolkowsky Ideal Cut, as calculated in the early 20th century by mathematician Markov Tolkowsky. The diagram below describes the Class 1 and 2 grades of GIA. They are the largest body in the world for diamond grading, and we use their classifications to grade our diamonds. Class 1 is Ideal. Class 2 is Very Fine, Class 3 is Fair, and Class 4 is Poor. GIA’s definition of “Ideal – Very Fine” Class are as follows:

Please keep in mind that diamonds other than Round Brilliant do not always have their cuts measured in such detail because they are classified as “fancy cut” diamonds and have very loose tolerances.

When buying a diamond, especially a Round Brilliant cut diamond, it is always best to have a complete analysis of cut. This will tell you all the specifications of the diamond’s cut such as table percentage, depth percentage, etc., usually obtained from a scope (or megascope).



Carat weight is the weight of the diamond measured in carats. One carat is divided into 100 “points,” so that a diamond of 75 points weighs 0.75 carats. Carat weight is the most obvious factor in determining the value of a diamond. But two diamonds of equal carat weights can have very different prices, depending on their quality. Diamonds of high quality can be found in all size ranges.

The scale above depicts the carat weights and diameter sizes of round diamonds. Other diamond shapes will vary. For example, while a 1 carat round shape diamond is 6.5mm on average, a 1 carat princess shape diamond is often 5.5mm instead.

Since diamonds are measured by carat weight, and not size, two diamonds of the same weight could have different sizes. Why? If a diamond is cut too shallow it will have a larger diameter but a smaller depth. Likewise, if a diamond is cut too deep (or bottom heavy) it will have a smaller diameter and thus appear smaller when viewed from the top.

Cut is very important. A properly cut diamond will both yield a good face up size and sparkle well. For example, let’s say you’re interested in a 1.00ct round diamond. A poorly cut diamond that is bottom heavy may only have a diameter of say 6.1mm. So not only are you short changed on the face up size, but you get a diamond that was not cut to it’s full potential and thus does not sparkle like it should.

This is why it’s important not just to get the biggest diamond you can afford, but the best cut diamond as well.


Diamond Clarity is a measure of a diamond’s internal flaws and impurities. A diamond that is virtually free of interior or exterior inclusions (commonly referred to as flaws) is of the highest quality, for nothing interferes with the passage of light through the diamond. To determine a diamond’s clarity, it is viewed under 10x magnification by a trained gemologist. Small inclusions neither mar its beauty nor endanger its durability.

Flawless - No internal or external flaws.
Internally Flawless – No internal flaws. Very rare and beautiful diamonds which are quite expensive.
VVS1, VVS2 - Very, Very Slightly Included: Very difficult to see inclusions under 10x magnification. An excellent quality diamond.
VS1, VS2 – Very Slightly Included: Inclusions are typically not visible to the unaided eye. Less expensive than the VVS1 or VVS2 grades. Even properly graded VS2 diamonds can have visible inclusions in very large sizes or diamonds that do not have many facets which make flaws more visible such as an emerald shape.
SI1, SI2 - Slightly Included: Inclusions are typically visible under 10x magnification, SI clarity diamonds are usually of the best value since inclusions are not always visible to the naked eye and prices are reasonable when compared to prices of the VS2 clarity and up grades. Some SI clarity diamonds do have visible inclusions and should be evaluated carefully.
SI3 - Slightly Included-Included: SI3 is an EGL grade and is not recognized by GIA or other gemological institutions. The SI3 clarity grade has been adopted by other labs as well. Typically an SI3 clarity grade would usually be given an I1 grade by the GIA.
I1 - Included: an I1 clarity diamond will have a visible flaw which can be seen with the naked eye, but there should only be one major flaw which is not too obvious. Overall the diamond should still look nice however I1 clarity grades vary quite a bit so one should be very careful when making a selection. If your budget only allows for an SI3 or I1 clarity diamond, be sure to examine it thoroughly before purchasing and make sure the inclusions do not detract from the overall beauty of the diamond.
I2, I3 - Included: These diamonds will have inclusions visible to the naked eye, and will have many black spots from the black inclusions and/or appear very cloudy or milky from the white inclusions, feathers and cracks.


The diamond color grading scale varies from totally colorless to light yellow. The differences between one diamond color grade and another are very subtle and difficult to distinguish.

D-F : Colorless: perfect or almost perfect color.
G-J : Near colorless: good to very good color, and this diamond may “face up” colorless when mounted, especially in white gold or platinum.
K-M : Light but noticeable yellow or brown tint. Not recommended for larger diamond stone purchases, especially in engagement rings.

Out of the 4 C’s, color and cut are the two most important characteristics of a diamond. Do not compromise on color. An “H” color or better is usually best.


Many people confuse diamond cut with the shape of a diamond. Unlike shape, diamond cut is the metric used to evaluate the precision and quality of the overall cutting itself. Diamond cut is the most complex of the 4 Cs, and not even the major labs agree on how to best measure the quality of a diamond’s cut. Diamond Cut usually takes into consideration 3 criteria: Proportions, Symmetry and Polish. Sometimes Light Performance or other tests can be used to also calculate the precision of the diamond cut.

1. When a diamond is cut to proper proportions, light is reflected from one facet to another and then dispersed through the top of the stone similar to the image shown to the left.

2. If the cut of the diamond is too deep, some light escapes through the opposite side of the pavilion.

3. If the cut is too shallow, light escapes through the pavilion before it can be reflected.

Up until several years ago, evaluating the cut of a diamond was not an easy task. Dimensions and proportions of the diamond as well as its finish (both symmetry and polish) were all the information able to be evaluated, thereby making it difficult for consumers to understand what is a well-cut diamond and what is not.

Symmetry measures how well the facets match the other facets. A diamond cut with very good or excellent symmetry means that if you were to look at all the facets and compare to one another, they would look very uniform with very little variance. This doesn’t mean however the diamond is not cut too deep or too shallow.

Polish is a measure of the surface finish. If a diamond is only polished “Fair” or “Good” it does not allow maximum transition of light through the facets, due to it’s “rough” surface texture. Very Good polish by most lab standards is usually sufficient to get the top cut grade, and excellent/ideal is often preferred. Polish graded above Very Good is not detectible to the naked eye.

So while symmetry and polish help you determine if the diamond is cut well, it doesn’t always mean the diamond will perform like a well cut diamond.

Recently both the GIA and AGS have adopted “Cut Grades” which factor all these things together; the proportions, symmetry and polish, and sometimes even light performance. Currently, GIA issues a cut grade on its round diamonds, and AGS issues a cut grade on round and princess shape diamonds they grade.

About Pearl

Pearls have been prized for their beauty and rarity for more than four thousand years. From ancient China, India, and Egypt, to Imperial Rome, to the Arab world, to Native American tribes, cultures from around the world and throughout recorded history have valued pearls longer than any other gem. Pearls are the only gemstones grown inside of a living organism. Pearls are formed within oysters or mollusks when a foreign substance (most often a parasite – not a grain of sand) invades the shell of the mollusk and enters the soft mantle tissue. In response to the irritation, the mantle’s epithelial cells form a sac (known as a pearl sac) which secretes a crystalline substance called nacre, the same substance which makes up the interior of a mollusk’s shell, which builds up in layers around the irritant, forming a pearl

In the early part of the 20th century, Japanese researchers discovered a method of producing pearls artificially. Essentially, the method involves inserting a foreign substance, or nucleus, into the tissue of the oyster or mollusk, then returning it to the sea, allowing a cultured pearl to develop naturally. This practice was already quite widespread culturing hemispherical pearls known as mabe pearls. Kokichi Mikimoto is credited with perfecting the technique for artificially stimulating the development of round pearls in akoya mollusks, receiving a patent for this technique in 1916.

The Pearl Necklace Comes In Many Styles :-

Pearl necklaces come in a wide variety of styles:

About Gemstone

Garnet :The Gem of Friendship

Color : Deep Red to Rose
Birthstone Month : January
Zodiac : Capricorn (Dec.22-Jan.19)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 7.0-7.5
Anniversary Years : 2nd, 5th, 12th

Garnet derives its name from the Latin word for pomegranate, granatum, due to its resemblance to pomegranate seeds. Ancient Greeks and Romans associated it with fire, and Christians believed it to be used by Noah to illuminate the Ark. It is considered the gem of faith, constancy and truth; its wearer is said to be sociable and a good communicator.

Amethyst : :The Gem of Protection

Color : Purple – Violet
Birthstone Month : February
Zodiac : Aquarius (Jan.20-Feb.18)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 7.0
Anniversary Years : 21st

Amethyst is the violet-colored member of the quartz family; its name comes from the Greek amethustos, or “not to intoxicate.” Amethyst was one of the first gemstones to be used by man, and has had royal and ecclesiastical associations in many legends. It has been ascribed the power to prevent intoxication, assure victory, protect travelers and enhance its wearer’s business acumen

Aquamarine :The Gem of Happiness

Color : Purple – Pale Blue, Light Blue, Nearly Colorless
Birthstone Month : March
Zodiac : Pisces (Feb.19-Mar.20)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 7.5-8.0
Anniversary Years : 18th

Aquamarine, whose name is Latin for “seawater,” is a greenish-blue variety of the mineral beryl. Roman fisherman, and sailors throughout history, have used it as protection on the water. Believed to embody the spirit of the sea, it has long been regarded a symbol of purification, happiness and everlasting youth. It has also been said to establish happy marriages and reconcile differences.

Emerald :The Gem of Youth

Color : Light to Deep Green
Birthstone Month : May
Zodiac : Taurus (Apr.20-May20)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 6.5-7.0
Anniversary Years : 20th, 45th

Emerald, the green member of the beryl family, is named for the Persian word for green. The Greeks dedicated emerald to the goddess Venus; the Incas worshipped an emerald goddess; and legend has it that Jesus Christ used an emerald bowl at the Last Supper. Cleopatra’s emerald mines were world-famous in 2000 BC. Emerald is considered a symbol of immortality and faith, and an aid to eyesight, insight, and intelligence.

Pearl :The Gem of Wisdom

Color :White, Pink, Cream, Black, Golden
Birthstone Month : June
Zodiac : Gemini (May21-June20)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 3.0-4.0
Anniversary Years : 8th

The pearl is an organic gem, formed in mollusks as a natural defense to an irritant. Legends have described pearls as God’s first creation; as the tears of the gods; and as the representation of the moon’s influence on the Earth. Pearls were considered a nuptial gem in the 1920s. The pearl is often equated with wisdom, purity and femininity.

Ruby :The Gem of Passion / Majesty

Color :Medium Pink, Fuschia, Blood Red
Birthstone Month : July
Zodiac : Cancer (June21-July22)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 8.0
Anniversary Years : 40th

Ruby, from the Latin word ruber meaning “red,” is the red variety of the mineral corundum. Ruby is traditionally associated with passion, power and majesty; the ancients believed that a ruby thrown into a pot of water would cause it to boil immediately. Ruby is thought to attract and retain reciprocal love, and to bring success and good fortune to its wearer.

Peridot :The Gem of Strength

Color :Yellow Green, Olive
Birthstone Month : August
Zodiac : Leo (July23-Aug.22)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 6.5-7.0
Anniversary Years : 3rd

Peridot derives its name from the Arabic faridat, or “gem.” Peridots were highly prized in ancient Egypt; they were used both as currency and as personal adornments for the Pharoahs. Legend has it that peridots were only mined at night, since they were believed to glow in the dark like lanterns. They are thought to prevent sorrow and fear.

Sapphire :The Gem of Tranquility / Intelligence

Color :Blue, Pink, Orange, Yellow, Green, Purple, Black, Colorless
Birthstone Month : September
Zodiac : Virgo (Aug.23-Sept.22)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 9.0
Anniversary Years : 15th, 30th, 50th, 3rd

Sapphire is a variety of the mineral corundum, encompassing all colors except red (which is ruby); blue is the most common. The Persians believed that the blue of the sky was the reflection of a great sapphire on which the Earth rested. Accordingly, sapphire has represented the tranquility of the heavens throughout the ages. It is said to promote the intelligence of its wearer.

Opal :The gem of Foresight / Prophecy

Color :White, Gray, Blue, Green, Orange, Mosaic
Birthstone Month : October
Zodiac : Libra (Sept.23-Oct.22))
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 5.5-6.5
Anniversary Years : 13th

Opal’s name comes from the Sanskrit upala, or “precious stone.” The Arabs believed that opals acquired their fiery color by falling from heaven in flashes of lightning. Another legend claims that a Roman emperor once offered to trade one-third of his vast kingdom for a single opal. A particular favorite of Queen Victoria, opal has been said to bring love, foresight and the gift of prophecy to its wearer.

Citrine :The gem of Intuition

Color :Light Yellow, Golden Brown, Deep auburn
Birthstone Month : November
Zodiac : Scorpio (Oct.23-Nov.21)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 7.0
Anniversary Years : 7th

The name citrine comes from the old French word citron meaning yellow. Citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts in ancient times. While natural citrine is not very common, other forms of quartz are and the rich golden-orange to very dark orange color keeps citrine jewelry in high demand.

Blue Topaz :The gem of Longevity

Color :Blue, Aqua, Various Colors
Birthstone Month : December
Zodiac : Sagittarius (Nov.22-Dec.21)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 8.0
Anniversary Years : 4th, 6th, 23th

Topaz, which is thought to take its name from the Sanskrit tapas, meaning fire, occurs in a range of colors. Most varieties are associated with the Egyptians sun god Ra. Topaz is said to calm emotions when worn around the neck; it is also reputed to assure beauty, intelligence and a long life.

Tanzanite :The gem of Change / Transition

Color :Lavender
Birthstone Month : December
Zodiac : Sagittarius (Nov.22-Dec.21)
MOH’s Scale of Hardness : 6.5
Anniversary Years : 24th

Because tanzanite is such a new gemstone there is little myth or lore associated with it. The Maasi tribes of Tanzania are said to consider it to be connected with birth and give it as a gift on the birth of the first child. For this reason it is being marketed as a stone to be given newborn children regardless of their date of birth.

Jewelery Settings


The most common and popular type of setting, with either 4 or 6 prongs. The high position of the diamond allows maximum exposure to the light from top to bottom. This type of setting can be used for all kinds of faceted stones.


The bezel setting has been used for hundreds of years. The diamond is set deep inside of the mounting, then, using a burnishing tool, the outer metal mass is pushed over the edges of the stone to create a strip which holds it in place. This setting can be used for any type of stone.


Channel settings can be used for a variety of faceted stones – round brilliant, princess cut, emerald cut , baguettes, etc. The stones are aligned girdle-to-girdle along the groove and secured by hammering the upper sides of the channel walls.


The stones are placed side by side in small openings on a flat surface. The diamonds are secured by raised overlapping gem spurs and are finished by creating beads.

Jewelery Glossary

Alloy: Metals that are added to gold to provide strength and color variety, e.g., copper added to gold produces a “rose-gold” used widely in Victorian era.
Anniversary Band: Traditional gift from husband to wife marking an anniversary or a special expression of love. Stones set across the band in groups of three or more are standard.
Band Detailing: Engraved – Decorating metal by cutting lines into the surface with a sharp graver.
Milgrain – A band of metal that is decorated with tiny beads of metal.
Bracelet Types: Bangle – A rigid or inflexible bracelet, either solid or hinged to open with a clasp.

Cuff – A wide, solid bracelet usually with minimal decoration.

Charm- links with small mementos attached by “jump” rings; American tradition of filling the bracelet with tiny memories has never gone out of style. “Charms” refers to the little molded, engraved or stone-set pieces making up the jingle of the bracelet.

Line – A full length of single row diamonds forming a bracelet.

Omega – A solid looking chain with close fitting rectangular links.

‘S’ Tennis – A tennis bracelet with “S” shaped links between each diamond creating a flexible bracelet.

Tennis – A flexible in line diamond bracelet.

Bridal Set: The traditional set of two rings that fit together- the engagement ring and the wedding band.

A Trio Set is three rings in a matched set, an engagement and wedding band for the bride and coordinating wedding band for the groom.

CTR – Center: The weight of the center or focal point stone in a piece of jewelry containing more than one stone.
Cabochon: A cutting style that produces a convex surface with no reflecting facets, the stone has the shape of a dome. Used on opaque or semi-opaque stones.
Calibrated: A gemstone whose dimensions are a standard (mm) size and are cut to fit ready made jewelry findings or pieces.
Cameo: A raised or bas-relief carving on gem materials; most usually seen on shells.
Carat weight (ct) or
carat total weight (ctw):
The weight used in the gem trade since antiquity. Since 1907, Europe and America has adopted the metric carat of 200mg or 0.2g. (Weights given to famous old diamonds often vary because metric measure was not used). Small diamonds are weighed in “points” =1/100cts (=0.01cts.) One full carat 100 points = 1/5 gram (or .2gr.) 3.0 carat total weight refers to the cumulative weight or carats of all stones in the piece of jewelry.
Cathedral Mounting: High profile ring setting that arches when seen from the side.
Chain styles Omega – Links in the shape of the Greek letter

Rope – twisted strands woven to resemble rope.

Snake – A metal chain made up of a series of small linked cups with curved joints to suggest snakeskin

Box Chain - A chain with links resembling small overlapping boxes.

Center Gemstone Stone Shape: Baguette – A simple, rectangular step-cut, primarily in diamonds, sapphires, and rubies.

Bead - A drilled stone designed to be strung.

Briolette – A tear-drop shaped stone with facets all around. This type of stone makes a nice pendant or earrings.

Cushion – Indicates a rectangular shape.

Emerald – Stone cut into a rectangular or square shape, with rectangular facets arranged in rows that look like flights of stairs.

Heart – A stone cut into the shape of a heart.

Marquise – A fancy gemstone cut; long, and pointed at both ends.

Multi-Stone – A piece of jewelry with several stones grouped together creating the illusion of one large center stone.

Oval – An elongated circle.

Pear – A teardrop shaped stone.

Princess – A square cut stone or rectangular with triangular and kite shaped facets.

Radiant – A stone cut into a rectangular shape with the corners clipped unlike a princess cut which has pointed corners.

Round - This shape gives maximum brilliance from most diamond crystals.

Trillion – A stone cut into a triangle.

Center Setting Style: Baguette – A simple, rectangular cut primarily in diamonds, sapphires and rubies.

Bar – A setting style where each setting is held in by a bar, shared between each stone.

Basket – A fancy setting of various shapes with numerous side piercing that provide a basket work or a lacy appearance.

Bezel – A style setting in which the girdle of the stones is completely encircled by ad set flush with the metal.

Channel – Low metal setting holding gemstones on 2 sides only.

Half Bezel – A type of setting in which the girdle of the stones is partially encircled on two sides and set flush with the metal.

Multi-Stone – A piece of jewelry with several stones grouped together creating the illusion of one large stone.

Prong – A setting consisting of a series of prongs or claws to hold a stone. Such settings usually consist of 4 or 6 prongs.

Tension – Opposite ends of a setting hold a stone by the force of tension, making it appear it is floating.

Tiffany – This high prong setting is most common today.

Chevron Style: A “V” shaped design seen primarily in rings and necklaces.
Chatoyancy: An effect which resembles the slit eye of a cat caused by reflection of light by parallel fibers, needles or channels in the stone. Most effective in a cabochon cut. Most common is of chrysoberyl.
Choker: A necklace designed to be worn up closely to the neck. Normally 16″ in length or shorter, depending on neck size.
Clasp styles: Barrel Clasp : a round or oval solid body fastener which resembles a barrel. The two ends screw into each other.

Box clasp : A type of bracelet or necklace clasp in which the female end is a box and the male end is designed to fix inside the box.

Lobster clasp : fastener than resembles the claws of a lobster and opens and closes in a pincer movement.

Safety clasp : a secondary closure (usually on a necklace or bracelet) that prevents the loss of the jewelry in case the primary clasp opens.

Toggle : a jewelry fastener in which a bar can be inserted into a ring to fasten two sides of a piece of jewelry usually the two ends of a bracelet or necklace.

Cluster : A group of closely set stones.
Cocktail Ring : A ring of three-dimensional design, usually combining small diamonds with other gemstones on varying levels for maximum reflective possibility.
Color-Enhanced : Any treatment process that enhances or changes the color of a gemstone. This may include heat-treating, irradiation, dying, bleaching, oiling, to name a few.
Comfort Fit: The inside shank of a ring that is slightly rounded (convex) to provide a more comfortable fit.
Culet: A small facet placed at the bottom of the pavilion of a gem.
Cultured Pearl: A pearl resulting from man inserting a bead into a mollusk, which covers it with a coating called nacre. Almost all pearls are harvested in this manner today.
Diamond Rough: A diamond still in its natural state, before faceting or polishing.
Diamond-Cut: Besides referring to a diamond’s cut (see diamond above) this tern also refers to a process in which gold is “diamond-cut” or faceted to make it “sparkle.”
Dispersion: The multi-colored flashes of light from a well cut diamond. It gives gems their internal fire.
Doublet: Two gemstones cemented together for durability or enhanced visual appeal, such as opal and black onyx. Doublets are created in several ways and use many combinations. Upper and lower parts of natural gemstone have colored glue between them: or the upper part is gemstone and the lower part is colored glass. Where the doublet has a thin top layer of harder stone for the protection of the surface, it becomes a triplet.
Earring Back Design: Hinged Hoops – Hoop earrings which are hinged usually at the bottom, to open for ease of putting on and taking off.

Lever Back – A type of earring mounting that allows the gemstone to dangle from the earlobes.

Omega Back – Hinged back for hoop earrings, in the shape of the Greek letter omega.

Screw Back – A pierced earring post with grooves cut into in so that the back may be screwed on.

Friction posts – Earring base requiring applied tension to release the back from the post

Earring Design: Chandelier – “party” earring with many dangling layers. Made famous of late by celebrities such as Nicole Kidman and Jennifer Lopez.

Dangles – Earrings that “dangle” off the ear.

Hoops – Earrings designed in a rounded loop from the front to back of the earlobe.

J-Hoops – Half hoop earrings that resemble the letter “J”; does not completely encircle the ear lobe

Jackets – A piece of jewelry that fits around another piece; earring jackets are used to “dress” a plain workday stud. They can be almost any design and stone, i.e. pearls (and or diamonds) to encircle a plain gold stud; a dangling piece with movement– to go dancing after work, etc.

Stud – A small, often round earring made for a pierced ear.

Eye Loupe: A hand-held magnifying lens used to examine gems. Usually 10x magnification, but can be higher.
Facet: A flat, polished surface cut into a stone.
Fancy Color Diamond: See diamond Color. The “fancy diamonds” are more highly saturated colors of the natural stone–even browns and yellows. A diamond that falls outside the usual color range from whites to light yellow and brown are considered “Fancy”.
Findings: Pre-manufactured small parts of jewelry such as settings, clasps, jump rings, etc…
Flaw: In terms, an imperfection ( flaw) which is visible at 10x magnification.
Four Cs: Phrase coined to describe the 4 quality and value considerations of a diamond: cut, color, clarity, and carat weight. Scroll down to diamond or…
Freshwater Cultured Pearl: These pearls are formed in mussels living in freshwater lakes or rivers. Mantle tissue from a mussel is inserted into the mussel rather than a shell bead. Freshwaters are less expensive than their salt-water cousins; they are known for their out-of-round charming shapes, and range of colors at a good price.
Gemstone Types: Alexandrite – A very rare stone noted for its color changing abilities. Known since pre-history, it was named for Czar Alexander II . It is chrysoberyl and rates an 8 ? on the Mohs’ Hardness scale. Colors are greenish outdoors, and reddish to violet under artificial light. There are Alexandrite cat’s eyes in existence but of even greater rarity. Alexandrite is one of the birthstones for June.

Amethyst – A silicon dioxide –quartz gemstone, rating 7 on the Mohs’ hardness scale. Ranging in color from clear purple to bluish violet. Birthstone for February. Legendary powers: brings luck, ensures constancy, protects against magic.

Aquamarine - Belongs to the beryl group, as does emerald and beryl. Mohs’ hardness is 7 ? -8. The name translates to “water of the sea” because of the usual color. Semi-precious porous stone ranging in color from light blue to sea green. Increasingly rare, the “synthetic” aquamarine is synthetic spinel, and the color is richer than many natural stones. Birthstone for March.

Black Star Sapphire – A cabochon cut black sapphire with a 6 ray star. These stones are always heat treated to improve their color.

Blue Star Sapphire Mohs’ Hardness of 9. The mineral is corundum. A cabochon cut blue sapphire displaying a 3 ray, 6 point star.

Blue Topaz – A topaz ranging in color from pale blue to bright blue. Most blue topaz is irradiated & heat treated to produce their blue color. Birthstone for December.

Cats Eye – Chatoyancy is a phenomenon seen in various gems when they are cabochon cut, resulting in a bright single line down the center.

Ceylon Sapphire – These deep royal blue sapphires from Sri Lanka, formally Ceylon, are the finest in the world.

Citrine – A semi-precious quartz gemstone, ranging in color from a light yellow to a brilliant orange. Birthstone for

Diamond – ( See above )A very valued gem composed of pure carbon, the hardest of all known natural substances. Birthstone for April.

Emerald – Belongs to the beryl group. One of the most valuable gems, ranging in color from green to bluish-green. The green pigment is chrome, and is incomparable in the gem world. Known for it’s “inclusions” which are not necessarily known as faults, since they are evidence of the genuineness of the stone. Experts refer to these as the emerald’s “jardin” –garden. Birthstone for May.

Garnet – A group of semi-precious stones ranging in all colors but blue. Most commonly a deep red. Name comes from Latin for grain, because of the rounded shape of the crystals. Garnet is understood to mean pyrope and almandine, 7-71/2 on the Hardness scale. Birthstone for January. Iolite – A transparent, violet blue, light or yellow gray mineral. Also know as the water sapphire. 7-71/2 on the Mohs’ scale. But difficult to cut.

Mother of Pearl – The material obtained from the inside of the shell of a certain large mollusk.

Onyx – A quartz mineral (chalcedony) that is usually black. 61/2-7 on the Mohs’ hardness scale. Ancient talisman against depression.

Opal – Some of the most stunning of the semi-precious stones; luminous and iridescent, frequently with inclusions of many colors. Opals always contain water, and over generations the stone can lose water. Store in moist absorbent cotton to prevent this. Care must be taken with setting. Too much heat evaporates the water. Birthstone for October.

Peridot – Formerly called “chrysolite” , it is a yellow-green semi-precious stone. Also called olivine. 6-71/2 on the Hardness scale. In Middle Ages used for ecclesiastical purposes. It can burst under great stress and is usually metal foiled. Birthstone for August.

Rhodolite: A member of the garnet pyrope group 4-5 on the Mohs’. Mistakenly called “cape ruby”. Color range from rose-red or pale violet.

Ruby – a corundum with the Mohs’ rating of 9, making it the hardest mineral after diamond. Ruby has no cleavage but has preferred directions of parting. Inclusions are common and not an indication of lower quality. Some rubies when cut en cabochon give a cat’s eye or the very desirable asterism-a 6 rayed star which moves over the surface when stone is moved. Color ranges from deep red to pink and into brown hues. Corundum unsuitable for jewelry is used as a cutting and polishing medium. Rubies are one of the most expensive gemstones. Birthstone for the month of July.

Sapphire – a corundum with the Mohs’ rating of 9, making it almost as hard as diamond. Today corundums in all colors except red (which are rubies) are called sapphires. There is really no definite demarcation between ruby and sapphire. Also found with the rutile needles making a cats’ eye or marvelous 6 rayed star when cut en cabochon. Most popular as a blue stone, and the most desired are Kashmir sapphires, although they now come from Burma. Birthstone for September.

Spinels- magnesium aluminum oxide with a rating of 8 on the Mohs’ scale. They occur in all colors, the favorite being a ruby-like red. Star spinels are very rare. It was only recognized as an individual mineral 150 years ago, before that is was thought to be ruby, because it also occurs with it. Some well-known rubies are truly spinels.

Tanzanite – First found in Tanzania East Africa and named for that country by Tiffany & Co.. Mineralogists refer to it as blue zoisite. 61/2 -7 on the Hardness scale. Gorgeous color enhanced by heating. A valuable transparent blue-purple stone, and cat’s eyes are also found.

Topaz – in antiquity all yellow and brown gemstones were called topaz. The colored topaz stones are rarely vivid in hue. Hardness is 8, but it’s not without danger of cleavage. It has a wide color range, the most valuable of which is pink., sometimes referred to as Imperial Topaz.. Birthstone for November.

Tourmaline – 7-71/2 on the Mohs’ scale. No gemstone has such richness in color variation. There are several varieties: Achroite–nearly colorless -rare; rubellite -pink to red, sometimes with a violet tint. Dravite-yellow brown to dark brown; verdelite-green in all shades; Indigolite-blue inall shades; Siberite-lolac to violet blue; schorl-black, very common. Rarely used for jewelry. One color tourmalines are rare. Most crystals have various shades. The pink to reddish color tourmaline is one of the birthstones for October.

Girdle: The widest part of a cut gem, where the crown and pavilion facets meet. On better diamonds, such as our AGS-certified Ideal Cut diamonds, a laser ID is placed on the girdle.
Gold Plate: A base metal that is electro-plated with gold or an alloy of gold. Also known as gold flash, gold finish, or gold tone.
Gold-Filled: A layer of gold adhered or bonded to metal. The weight of gold must be 1/20 of the total weight or better and must be 10kt or better.
Guard Ring: Ring or rings worn on each side of a solitaire, also sometimes fastened together at the bottom.
Hardness: Refers to one mineral’s ability to scratch another. Hardness is measured on a scale called the Mohs’ scale of hardness. This scale ranges from 10 (diamond) to 1 (talc), with 10 being the hardest. A diamond is hard enough to scratch any other mineral and talc is so soft it can be scratched with a fingernail. Although popular opinion says the non-professional’s method of testing for a diamond is ability to scratch glass, any mineral from a 7 through 10 can do the same.
Imitation: Constructed to look like the genuine article whether it be gem or metal, but lacking the crystal structure and chemical composition.
Insert: This is a trade reference to a double ring , sometimes ornamented with gems, with a space between to accommodate another ring in its center. Most often used as guard rings for a valuable center gemstone ring.
Ivory: Originally referring only to elephants’ tusks, it is now recognized as the teeth of hippopotamus, narwhal, sea lion, wild boar and fossilized mammoth. Endangered species are hunted for their ivory, and the United States will not allow importation or sales. But sea lion teeth are used for good quality ivory carving now. Very soft, a 2-3 on the Mohs’ scale. Calcium phosphate in composition.
Loupe: A small magnifying lens used to view diamond and jewelry, usually 10x magnification.
Mandrel: Tapered, cylindrical metal device with measurement marks used at a jewelry store to measure a ring’s size.
Melee: Small stones less than 1/4 ct in weight.
Metal Color: The following are the resulting colors when mixing or alloying :

Yellow Gold – Gold that has been alloyed with a mix of 50% copper and 50% silver.

White Gold – Usually an alloy of yellow gold, copper, nickel, and zinc that results in a white colored metal. Since this is yellow gold alloyed to appear “white” it has a slightly yellowish tint until it is plated with rhodium, which gives it a bright white finish.

Two-Tone – A piece of jewelry using both white and yellow metals.

Rose Gold – Gold that has been alloyed with a mix of 90% copper and 10% silver producing a gold with a pink tinge.

Mixed Cut: This style is a combination of the brilliant and step facets. Many mixed cuts have step faceting on the crown and brilliant faceting on the pavilion, however this is sometimes reversed. The two types of facets can be combined on the crown, pavilion or both. To learn more about the characteristics of a diamond, go to the diamond buying guide.
Moh’s Scale: The usual scale of hardness used in the jewelry industry, introduced by F. Mohs.
Moonstone: A feldspar named after the blue-white sheen inherent, which can also produce moonstone cats’ eye. 6-6 1/2 on the hardness scale. Cut in cabochon, always.
Mother’s Ring: Ring set with the birthstone of each child or grandchild, usually a straight line, but increasingly in cluster settings. Worn by mothers and grandmothers.
Mounting Design: Bypass shank – A ring design in which the two sides of the band do not meet in a straight line, but “bypass” one another. Straight – A style of mounting where the two sides of the shank are straight across from one another at the top.
Mounting Finish: Florentine – An etched metal finish, similar to satin but with a noticeably deeper etching in the gold.

Polished – Most popular finish on gold, giving it a smooth finish and a bright shine.

Satin – A widely used finish on gold, achieved by dulling he surface to create a silk like luster instead of a shiny surface.

Natural Pearl: A natural pearl results from nature inserting an irritant into a mollusk and the mollusk secreting a natural coating which covers it. These are very rare and nearly impossible to find today. Most are cultured pearls, invoked by man-made introduction into the mollusk and cultivated over time.
Necklace Lengths and terms : Princess Length – An 18″ strand of pearls

Matinee Length – A 20″ – 24″ strand of pearls

Opera Length – 28″ – 30″ strand of pearls

Graduated Multiples – Several chain lengths in one necklace

Pavilion: The lower part of a cut gemstone, below the girdle.
Pearl Shape: Baroque - An irregular-shaped pearl .

Mobe – A large one-sided cultured pearl which has formed on the concave shell of the oyster and is flat on one side.

Off Round – Any pearl that is not “round,” but has a slightly irregular shape. Round – A perfectly round pearl.

Pearl Size: Seed Pearl – Very small, very round pearls often less than 2mm in diameter.
Point: Unit of weight. 1 point is equivalent to 0.01 (1/100) carats.
Post: The metal stem of a pierced earring, increasingly in stainless steel, for nickel metal allergy sufferers.
Precious Stones: An obsolete term which generally is used to refer to diamond, emerald, sapphire, or ruby.
Prong: A narrow piece of metal that is folded over the girdle of a stone to secure it in a setting.
Proportion: The relationship between the diamond’s angles and parts. Refers to facet angles and the relationship between the crown (portion above the girdle) and pavilion (portion below the girdle).
Refractive Index: A measure of how light is bent as it enters and exits a gemstone. Each mineral has a refractive index, and that serves as an identifier. The amount of refraction in crystals is constant in the various types of gems.
Rhodium: A white metallic element of the platinum group that is harder, whiter, and more reflective than platinum. It is widely used for plating.
Semi-precious Stones: An obsolete term used to describe gemstones which are not diamond, emerald, sapphire, or ruby. These terms are misleading as many “semi-precious” gemstones are extremely valuable, and rarer than precious stones. Some “precious” gemstones are of such poor quality that their value is very low.
Shank: The part of a ring which encircles the finger and to which the setting for stones is attached.
Solder: Pronounced /saw-der/, a metal alloy used when joining two metal surfaces.
Synthetic: A manmade substitute stone which has the same chemical, physical and optical qualities as its naturally occurring counterpart. Synonymous with lab-created gemstones. Many are extremely valuable.
Table: The largest facet at the top of the crown of a gemstone. It is generally parallel to the girdle.
Total Gem Weight: The combined carat weight of all the diamonds or colored gems in a piece of jewelry; the main pricing point for a piece. Abbreviated as TW.
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